If you're a fan of GoLang then your options are limited in the embedded world. I was originally going to provide more details about GoLang here, but the best place to learn about Go is on the GoLang Tour website.
If you really want me to go into GoLang more, then leave a comment below. Also check out this article from a talk back in on why GoLang appeared in the first place. Currently we have two options for Go in the embedded world. Either using a GoLang based framework or bare metal programming of a device. For frameworks there's embd and gobot.
It's an almost complete framework supporting only a handful of SBCs. So, it isn't the best one out there. The best GoLang based framework for IoT is gobot. There's a couple of good examples of what you can do with it.
The device support, such as sensors, isn't as mature, but adding devices is pretty easy since the framework uses Go.
However, for MCU platforms such as the Arduinoyou don't write in Go for the MCU, but burn the firmata firmware to your device which can be accessed from your Go code running on, for example, a Raspberry Pi. If you really want to program in Go for your MCU, then the only other viable option is using emgowritten by Michal Derkacz. This doesn't compile Go code directly to assembler, but rather trans-piles, or converts, Go to C and then compiles that to assembler.
While this seems to be a roundabout way of doing things, it actually makes it very clean.
Running GoLang on an STM32 MCU. A quick tutorial.
However, there are a couple of downsides to using emgo. The best way to show you, is to run through a simple blinky LED example written in Go. First of all you'll need a programmer. I used an STlink v2 for this.I almost always prefer to use the microcontroller IC by itself, rather than building around a development kit since I find that to be much more interesting.
This microcontroller is optimized for low power, but contains a USB peripheral which I used for talking to the wristwatch from my PC, both for setting the time and for reflashing the firmware. This was one of my first hobby projects where I designed something without any prior breadboarding beyond the battery charger circuit.
My objective here is to walk quickly through the operation of the USB Peripheral, specifically the Packet Memory Area, then talk a bit about how the USB Peripheral does transfers, and move on to how I structured my code to abstract the USB packetizing logic away from the application.
My code is by no means good. Feel free to leave a comment with your thoughts. Next, you will need to locate the appropriate datasheets. ST makes these easy to find on their website. In my opinion, this is the most complex part of the peripheral and something that I spent many hours reading about.
This is arranged in bit words accessible by word, halfword and byte, with some restrictions, through the main memory bus. The packet memory area is completely separate from the general SRAM and instead contains bit words. As I mentioned earlier, it can be accessed concurrently by the main memory bus and the USB Peripheral by way of an Arbiter which moderates between the two without needing the program to intervene or be aware of the USB Peripheral accessing the PMA. I think this is most easily understood with the following diagram:.
Each bit word of PMA memory utilizes all four bytes of a bit-aligned address, even though the value itself only uses the first two bytes.
This also requires some special considerations when accessing memory. Since accesses can only happen by bit word and only two bytes of that word are actually used, it is not suitable for use as general memory.
It is arranged as bit words so its twice the size and also does not require access on bit boundaries. Nonetheless, it seems to work. If someone could point me in the right direction for understanding this, I would appreciate it. Still naive, still insecure, and still requiring bit aligned buffers in the general SRAM.
Just about the only upside is the simplicity of access. During the linking phase, the linker script will instruct the linker to take those sections and place them at specific memory addresses. Now, there are a few things to note about this variable:. Another thing to note is that when the USB peripheral gets an address to something in the PMA, it does not need the 0x offset.
In fact, from its perspective address 0x is the start of the PMA. In conclusion, by creating this. The amount of pointer math I have to do with macros is fairly limited compared to manually computing an address inside the PMA and dereferencing it.
So far this seems like a safer way to do this, though I think it can still be improved. The main point I want to hit on with this register is the Status fields. The USB Peripheral is fairly involved with handshaking and so the status of the transmitter or receiver must be set correctly:. This is where the PMA ties in. There are 8 entries in the BDT one for each endpoint and they have the following structure assuming the Kind bit is set to 0…the Kind bit can enable double buffering, which is beyond the scope of this post :.
The struct is packed, meaning that each of those PMAWords is right next to the other one. They are in fact pointing to locations inside the PMA as well. The BDT is just an array, consisting of 8 of these byte structures. After an endpoint is initialized and the user requests a transfer on that endpoint, I do the following once for transmit and once for receive, as needed:.
After this address, we can use the rest of the memory in the PMA as we please at runtime, just like a simple heap. My goals were as follows:. Notice these are weak symbols.Do you want to start STM32 programming? The host platform used for this guide is Linux Mint You can use as well, Ubuntu, Raspbian, and even Microsoft Windows. The hardware: the blue pill and for uploading the firmware we need at least a ST-Link v2 device.
The software: need to have installed the ST-Link tool and the cross compiler. Prior knowledge: basic Linux operation, not being afraid of command line, C language, basic embedded stuff. The first two lines are instructing the assembler to generate thumb code for the Cortex-M3 core. The thumb code is more compact in terms of memory footprint, but is a bit slower at run time. The value written at first.
The second. The last two lines are the jump to main and the infinite loop, in case someone wants to exit from the main function. This instructs the linker how to place different sections of data into the binary.
Bare Metal STM32 Programming – LED Blink
This makefile can be used for multiple things: for build, clean, upload or erase target. Before uploading the code into the board, you need to seat both jumpers towards the micro-USB connector, then connect the debugger to the Blue Pill like in the picture:.
Disconnect one before plugging-in the other one. Next, we need to configure the port C as push-pull output. Thus, for port C13 bits are going to be set to 0x2. So, we replace the main function in main. You can find the code on github. And do you have more information or guides on STM32 bare metal programming?
Look on the front pageyou will find more stuff. And more is yet to come soon.
ARM Programming With Bare C
Prerequisites The hardware: the blue pill and for uploading the firmware we need at least a ST-Link v2 device. Steps to do We create in the same directory four files named: main.
C run-time assembly file crt. Linker script file linker. For build, cd to the files directory, then use any of these, there is no difference: make make all When need the removal of the output files, use: make clean Connect the ST-Link v2 Before uploading the code into the board, you need to seat both jumpers towards the micro-USB connector, then connect the debugger to the Blue Pill like in the picture: Caution!
The code So, at the beginning of main. By Albert. By Grig. By Miguel Angel. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. Comment Name Email Website.GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together.
If nothing happens, download GitHub Desktop and try again. If nothing happens, download Xcode and try again. If nothing happens, download the GitHub extension for Visual Studio and try again. I program using the C language and Makefiles, so this is a collection of "on the bare metal" style stuff. By and large it is the record of my education on these devices.
Bare metal STM32: Writing a USB driver
The are now selling for less than that, and with free shipping. These are also known as the "blue pill" and are discussed in the STM32duino forums. Along the way I ran into David Welch who gave me some valuable pointers and hearty encouragment.
He is doing the same sorts of things with the same gadgets:. Skip to content. Dismiss Join GitHub today GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together. Sign up. C Assembly Makefile Ruby Other.
Branch: master. Find file. Sign in Sign up. Go back. Launching Xcode If nothing happens, download Xcode and try again. Latest commit Fetching latest commit…. You signed in with another tab or window.
Reload to refresh your session.The STMbase project is mostly meant for students and hobbyists. The goal of the STMbase project is to provide a simple and easy to use base project for learning about and experimenting with STM32 microcontrollers. Another big part of the STMbase project is the development board section on this website.
That section almost became a project in itself. It became increasingly important to the STM32 community after the stm32duino wiki went offline. Someone had written a guide on how to get started with stm32duino and the Blue Pill. I wanted to experiment with the CAN bus controller on these microcontrollers. However, when using an Arduino bootloader meant that the USB controller was already in use.
I then decided to look into bare-metal programming STM32 microcontrollers. How hard could it be? I started looking for tutorials which would explain to me how to set up a toolchain, and more importantly, why you need things like linker scripts and startup code and how they work. Most tutorials, however, were focussed on getting you started as fast as possible.
They were written with the assumption that the makefiles, linker scripts, startup code, and CMSIS are already present and considered them black boxes. I do want to know how everything works. I started gathering information from many sources and put it all together. And still, this project is not nearly as far as I would like it to be. But progress is made every now and then, and that is the most important thing. I hope that this project helps out those who currently are where I was when I started this project.
To learn more about me and the things I do, visit my website at thomas-gravekamp. I am in no way affiliated with STMicroelectronics. This is just a personal project. About The STMbase project is mostly meant for students and hobbyists.This guide gives a brief overview of what is unique about compiling C programs to execute in a bare-metal environment. A typical program is compiled for a hosted system where it has access to the standard libraries and facilities provided by the operating system layer.
In hosted mode, the program runs at the pleasure of the host operating system. In contrast, a bare metal program is non-hosted; it does not stand on top of an operating system or library; it runs entirely standalone. The program has the freedom to do whatever it wants, without any pesky interference from a overbearing OS, but cannot count on any facilities other than what it provides for itself. By default, gcc compiles assuming a hosted environment, since this is the common case.
To properly compile a bare metal program, we need to set the appropriate compiler and linker options to ensure the program is configured to run standalone. This gcc option directs the compiler to limit this program to only those features available in the freestanding environment.
These headers define the types appropriate for the machine being used, as well as useful constants such as the minimum and maximum values for different types.
In hosted mode, the main function must adhere to a rigid specification. Execution begins at the function named main and its signature must typically match:. The compiler will issue warnings if you define main differently for a hosted program.
Freestanding mode removes the special semantics for the main function. In the standalone world, main can have any type signature and it is configurable whether it is main or some other function that starts the program.
A typical main signature for a freestanding program is simply:. The -ffreestanding option also directs the compiler to not assume that standard functions have their usual definitions. This will prevent the compiler from making optimizations based on assumptions about the behaviors of the standard libraries.
For example, in a hosted environment, gcc is assured that the available library meets the specification of the language standard. In freestanding mode, you could define your own puts function and your version of puts could act completely differently than the standard puts function, making such a substitution invalid. Thus when -ffreestanding is used, gcc does not assume a standard library environment and will not make such optimizations. It maybe a bit surprising to learn that even when compiling in freestanding mode, gcc can emit a call to memcpy or memset.
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It only takes a minute to sign up. I am trying to send a simple data from STM32f to another one. But I am having trouble with my code. I have been working on it since 2 weeks and I couldn't find any solution. To test this I placed this code:. Are you running with an external or internal high speed clock?
That value 26 seems sort of high. Side note: Unless your committed to dorking around in the guts of the chip, I would just find a good HAL library. NOT the one from ST!
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Asked 3 months ago. Active 3 months ago. Viewed times. To test this I placed this code: while! Can someone help me please? Thank you for reading. And Here is my main function. Have you configured one of the devices as a slave and the other as the master?
But actually the default value is allready slave. That's usually because my peripherals are a very scarce resource and I don't waste them on such things.
Even in the case of dozens of MCUs running at different clock rates and out of sync even when they are, a multi-master situation is quite easily managed. Hung on an interrupt event so it runs in the background. I don't exactly know the bit-bang term but as I understand ,you use another pin like another GPIO pin with no alternate function within the microcontroller, to test communication. Am I correct? In other words you are bypassing the hardware version and doing everything in software.
It's not often used with STM32 hardware because, with rare exceptions, these chips have a large number of peripherals embedded in them. Active Oldest Votes. Just one mis-configuration can cause a non-start, but it looks like you have more than one.